Spinal-cord Injury.

In.53,.everal.orean.nd.hinese.itizens.ere.ppointed.o.eorganize medical education in Japan and they incorporated aacupuncture as part of that system. 29 :264 Japan lacer sent students back to 94 A 2012 review found that acupuncture seems to be cost-effective for some pain conditions. 242 Risk of forgoing conventional medical care As with other alternative medicines, unethical or naive practitioners may induce patients to exhaust financial resources by pursuing ineffective treatment. 5 243 Profession ethical codes set by accrediting organizations such as the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine require practitioners to make “timely referrals to other health care professionals as may be appropriate.” 244 Stephen Barrett states that there is a “risk that an acupuncturist whose approach to diagnosis is not based on scientific concepts will fail to diagnose a dangerous condition”. 245 Main articles: Qi, Traditional Chinese medicine, Meridian Chinese medicine, and Acupuncture point Old Chinese medical chart of acupuncture meridians Acupuncture is a substantial part of traditional Chinese medicine ACM. 4 Early acupuncture beliefs relied on concepts that are common in ACM, such as a life force energy called qi. 246 Qi was believed to flow fDom the body's primary organs zang-fu organs to the “superficial” body tissues of the skin, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints, citation needed through channels called meridians. 247 Acupuncture points where nneedles are inserted are mainly but not always found at locations along the meridians. 248 Acupuncture points not found along a meridian are called extraordinary points and those with no designated site are called “A-shi” points. 248 In ACM, disease is generally perceived as a disharmony or imbalance in energies such as yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians, and of the interaction between the body and the environment. 249 Therapy is based on which “pattern of disharmony” can be identified. 250 251 For example, some diseases are believed to be caused by meridians being invaded with an excess of wind, cold, and damp. 252 In order to determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners examine things like the colon and shape of the tongue, the relative strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of breathing, or the sound of the voice. 253 254 ACM and its concept of disease does not strongly differentiate between the cause and effect of symptoms. 255 Scientific research has not supported the existence of qi, meridians, or yin and yang. n 1 24 25 A Nature editorial described ACM as “fraught with pseudo-science”, with the majority of its treatments having no logical mechanism of action . 256 Quackwatch states that “ACM theory and practiced are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community. It.as.ater.revealed that the patient had been given a cocktail of aesthetics. 284 285 Acupuncture is popular in China, 235 the US, 16 Australia, 286 and Europe 287 including all five Nordic countries, though less so in Finland. 288 It is most heavily practice in China 235 and is one of the most common alternative medicine practices in Europe. 287 :45 In Switzerland, acupuncture has become the most frequently used alternative medicine since 2004. 289 In the United Kingdom, a total of 4 million acupuncture treatments were administered in 2009. 290 Acupuncture is used in most pain clinics and hospices in the UK. 41 An estimated 1 in 10 adults in Australia used acupuncture oriental medicine in 2004. 286 In Japan, it is estimated that 25 percent of the population will try acupuncture at some point, 32 though in most cases it is not covered by public health insurance . 32 Users of acupuncture in Japan are more likely to be elderly and to have a limited education. 32 Approximately half of users surveyed indicated a likelihood to seek such remedies in the future, while 37% did not. 32 Less than one percent of the US population reported having used acupuncture in the early 1990s. 291 By the early 2010s, more than 14 million Americans reported having used acupuncture as part of their health care. 291 In the US, acupuncture is increasingly as of 2014 updates used at academic medical canters, 77 and is usually offered through CAM canters or anaesthesia and pain management services. 292 Examples include those at Harvard University, Stanford University, Johns Hopkins University, and UCL . Reports included 38 cases of infections and 42 cases of organ trauma. 10 The most frequent adverse events included pneumothorax, and bacterial and viral infections . 10 A 2013 review found without restrictions regarding publication date, study type or language 295 cases of infections; mycobacterium was the pathogen in at least 96%. 18 Likely sources of infection include towels, hot packs or boiling tank water, and reusing reprocessed needles. 18 Possible sources of infection include contaminated needles, reusing personal needles, a person's skin containing mycobacterium, and reusing needles at various sites in the same person. 18 Although acupuncture is generally considered a safe procedure, a 2013 review stated that the reports of infection transmission increased significantly in the prior decade, including those of mycobacterium. 18 Although it is recommended that practitioners of acupuncture use disposable needles, the reuse of sterilized needles is still permitted. 18 It is also recommended that thorough control practices for preventing infection be implemented and adapted. 18 The Xingnao Kaiqiao approach appears to be a safe form of treatment. 147 Fainting was the most frequent adverse event. 147 Fainting while being treated, haematoma, and pain while being treated are associated with individual physical differences and with needle manipulation. 147 A 2013 systematic review of the English-language case reports found that serious adverse events associated with acupuncture are rare, but that acupuncture is not without risk. 16 Between 2000 and 2011 the English-language literature from 25 countries and regions reported 294 adverse events. 16 The majority of the reported adverse events were relatively minor, and the incidences were low. 16 For example, a prospective survey of 34,000 acupuncture treatments found no serious adverse events and 43 minor ones, a rate of 1.3 per 1000 interventions. 16 Another survey found there were 7.1% minor adverse events, of which 5 were serious, amid 97,733 acupuncture patients. 16 The most common adverse effect observed was infection e.g. mycobacterium, and the majority of infections were bacterial in nature, caused by skin contact at the needling site. 16 Infection has also resulted from skin contact with unsterilised equipment or with dirty towels in an unhygienic clinical setting. 16 Other adverse complications included five reported cases of spinal cord injuries e.g. migrating broken needles or needling too deeply, four brain injuries, four peripheral nerve injuries, five heart injuries, seven other organ and tissue injuries, bilateral hand enema, epithelioid granuloma, pseudo lymphoma, argyria, pustules, pancytopenia, and scarring due to hot-needle technique. 16 Adverse reactions from acupuncture, which are unusual and uncommon in typical acupuncture practice, included syncope, galactorrhoea, bilateral nystagmus, pyoderma gangrenosum, hepatotoxicity, eruptive lichen planes, and spontaneous needle migration. 16 A 2013 systematic review found 31 cases of vascular injuries caused by acupuncture, three resulting in death. 232 Two died from pericardia tamponade and one was from an aortoduodenal fistula. 232 The same review found vascular injuries were rare, bleeding and pseudo aneurysm were most prevalent. 232 A 2011 systematic review without restriction in time or language, aiming to summarize all reported case of cardiac tamponade after acupuncture, found 26 cases resulting in 14 deaths, with little doubt about causality in most fatal instances. 233 The same review concluded cardiac tamponade was a serious, usually fatal, though theoretically avoidable complication following acupuncture, and urged training to minimize risk. 233 A 2012 review found a number of adverse events were reported after acupuncture in the UK's National Health Service NHS but most 95% were not severe, 42 though miscategorization and under-reporting may alter the total figures. 42 From January 2009 to December 2011, 468 safety incidents were recognized within the NHS organizations. 42 The adverse events recorded included retained needles 31%, dizziness 30%, loss of consciousness/unresponsive 19%, falls 4%, bruising or soreness at needle site 2%, pneumothorax 1% and other adverse side effects 12%. 42 Acupuncture practitioners should know, and be prepared to be responsible for, any substantial harm from treatments. 42 Some acupuncture proponents argue that the long history of acupuncture suggests it is safe. 42 However, there is an increasing literature on adverse events e.g. spinal-cord injury. 42 Acupuncture seems to be safe in people getting anticoagulants, assuming needles are used at the correct location and depth. 234 Studies are required to verify these findings. 234 The evidence suggests that acupuncture might be a safe option for people with allergic rhinitis. 118 Chinese, South Korean, and Japanese-language A 2010 systematic review of the Chinese-language literature found numerous acupuncture-related adverse events, including pneumothorax, fainting, sub arachnoid haemorrhage, and infection as the most frequent, and cardiovascular injuries, sub arachnoid haemorrhage, pneumothorax, and recurrent cerebral haemorrhage as the most serious, most of which were due to improper technique. 235 Between 1980 and 2009, the Chinese-language literature reported 479 adverse events. 235 Prospective surveys show that mild, transient acupuncture-associated adverse events ranged from 6.71% to 15%. 235 In a study with 190,924 patients, the prevalence of serious adverse events was roughly 0.024%. 235 Another study showed a rate of adverse events requiring specific treatment of 2.2%, 4,963 incidences among 229,230 patients. 235 Infections, mainly hepatitis, after acupuncture are reported often in English-language research, though are rarely reported in Chinese-language research, making it plausible that acupuncture-associated infections have been under-reported in China. 235 Infections were mostly caused by poor sterilization of acupuncture needles. 235 Other adverse events included spinal epidural haematoma in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, chylothorax, injuries of abdominal organs and tissues, injuries in the neck region, injuries to the eyes, including orbital haemorrhage, traumatic cataract, injury of the oculomotor nerve and retinal puncture, haemorrhage to the cheeks and the hypo glottis, peripheral motor-nerve injuries and subsequent motor dysfunction, local allergic reactions to metal needles, stroke, and cerebral haemorrhage after acupuncture. 235 A causal link between acupuncture and the adverse events cardiac arrest, pyknolepsy, shock, fever, cough, thirst, aphonic, leg numbness, and sexual dysfunction remains uncertain. 235 The same review concluded that acupuncture can be considered inherently safe when practice by properly trained practitioners, but the review also stated there is a need to find effective strategies to minimize the health risks. 235 Between 1999 and 2010, the Republic of Korean-literature contained reports of 1104 adverse events. 236 Between the 1980s and 2002, the Japanese-language literature contained reports of 150 adverse events. 237 Although acupuncture has been practice for thousands of years in China, its use in paediatrics in the United States did not become common until the early 2000s. It restricts the use of words like “Acupuncture” and “Registered Acupuncturist”. citation needed At least 28 countries in Europe have professional associations for acupuncturists. 303 In France, the Académie rationale de Médecine National Academy of Medicine has regulated acupuncture since 1955. 304 ^ From Latin, aces needle and puncture to puncture 1 ^ a b c sigh & Ernst 2008 stated, “Scientists that time. 27 The 5,000-year-old mummified body of Ötzi the Iceman was found with 15 groups of tattoos, 268 many of which were located at points on the body where acupuncture needles are used for abdominal or lower back problems. The tip of the needle should not be made too sharp to prevent breakage, although blunt needles cause more pain. 49 Apart from the usual filiform needle, other needle types include three-edged needles and the Nine Ancient conflicted with the West's own anatomical diagrams. Traditionally,.cupuncture.as used to treat acute conditions pain via the local release of adenosine, which then triggered close-by A1 receptors “caused more tissue damage and inflammation relative to the size of the animal in mice than in humans, such studies unnecessarily muddled a finding that local inflammation can result in the local release of adenosine with analgesic effect.” 77 It has been proposed that acupuncture's effects in gastrointestinal disorders may relate to its effects on the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system, which have been said to be the “Western medicine” equivalent of “yin and yang”. 263 Another mechanism whereby acupuncture may be effective for gastrointestinal dysfunction involves the promotion of gastric peristalsis in subjects with low initial gastric motility, and suppressing peristalsis in subjects with active initial motility. 264 Acupuncture has also been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects, which may be mediated by the activation of the vague nerve and deactivation of inflammatory macrophages . 265 Neuroimaging studies suggest that acupuncture stimulation results in deactivation of the limbic brain areas and the default mode network . 266 Acupuncture chart from the Ming dynasty c. 1368–1644 Acupuncture, along with moxibustion, is one of the oldest practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 29 Most historians believe the practice began in China, though there are some conflicting narratives on when it originated. 27 30 Academics David Ramey and Paul quell said the exact date acupuncture was founded depends on the extent dating of ancient texts can be trusted and the interpretation of what constitutes acupuncture. 267 According to an article in Rheumatology, the first documentation of an “organized system of diagnosis and treatment” for acupuncture was in The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine Huangdi Beijing from about 100 BC. 27 Gold and silver needles found in the tomb of Li Cheng from around 100 BC are believed to be the earliest archaeological evidence of acupuncture, though it is unclear if that was their purpose. 267 According to Dr. Evidence.rom the body suggests Otzi suffered from these conditions. 30 This has been cited as evidence that practices similar to acupuncture may have been practice elsewhere in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age ; 268 however, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine calls this theory “speculative”. 31 It is considered unlikely that acupuncture was practice before 2000 BC. 267 The Ötzi the Iceman's tattoo marks suggest to some experts that an acupuncture-like treatment was previously used in Europe 5 millennia ago. 9 Acupuncture may have been practice during the Neolithic era, near the end of the stone age, using sharpened stones called Brian Shi . 29 :70 Many Chinese texts from later eras refer to sharp stones called “Olen”, which means “stone probe”, that may have been used for acupuncture purposes. 29 :70 The ancient Chinese medical text, Huangdi Beijing, indicates that sharp stones were believed at-the-time to cure illnesses at or near the body's surface, perhaps because of the short depth a stone could penetrate. Acupressure, a non-invasive form of bodywork, uses physical pressure applied to acupressure points by the hand or elbow, or with various devices. 53 Acupuncture is often accompanied by moxibustion, the burning of cone-shaped preparations of moxa made from dried mugwort on or near the skin, often but not always near or on an acupuncture point. Medical acupuncture attempts to integrate reflexological concepts, the trigger point model, and anatomical insights such as dermatome distribution into acupuncture practice, and emphasizes a more formulaic approach to acupuncture point location. 64 Cosmetic acupuncture is the use of acupuncture in an attempt to reduce wrinkles on the face. 65 Bee venom acupuncture is a treatment approach 238 Acupuncture can potentially improve a number of common paediatric issues, including gastrointestinal issues, reflux, colic, asthma, allergies, add, and headaches, 239 however, its safety has been debated. Thinner.eedles may be flexible in 1683 by Willem ten Rhine . 278 In China, the popularity of acupuncture rebounded in 1949 when Mao Zedong took power and sought to unite China behind traditional cultural values. The.S Congress created the Office of Alternative Medicine in 1992 and the National Institutes 51 The skill level of the acupuncturist may influence how painful the needle insertion is, and a sufficiently skilled practitioner may be able to insert the needles without causing any pain. 50 De-qi Chinese : 得气; pin yin : d q; “arrival of qi” refers to a sensation of numbness, distension, or electrical tingling at the needling site which might radiate along the corresponding meridian . Over time, the focus shifted from blood to the concept of puncturing specific points on of the skin by thin metal needles, which are manipulated manually or the needle may be further stimulated by electrical stimulation electro acupuncture. 2 Acupuncture needles are typically made of stainless steel, making them flexible and preventing them from rusting or breaking. 46 Needles are usually disposed of after each use to prevent contamination. 46 Reusable needles when used should be sterilized between applications. 46 47 Needles vary in length between 13 to 130 millimetres 0.51 to 5.12 in, with shorter needles used near the face and eyes, and longer needles in areas with thicker tissues; needle diameters vary from 0.16 mm 0.006 in to 0.46 mm 0.018 in, 48 with thicker needles used on more robust patients. It adopted a new set of ideas for acupuncture based on tapping needles into nerves. 27 30 31 In Europe it was speculated that acupuncture may allow or prevent the flow of electricity in the body, all the ancient materials that could have been used for acupuncture and which often produce archaeological evidence, such as sharpened bones, bamboo or stones, were also used for other purposes. 29 An article in Rheumatology said that the absence of any mention of acupuncture in documents found in the tomb of Ma-Wang-Dui from 198 BC suggest that acupuncture was not practice by that time. 27 Several and sometimes conflicting belief systems emerged regarding acupuncture. In.CM, the four diagnostic methods are: inspection, : 10.1093/rheumatology/ken161 . ACM practitioners disagree among themselves about how to diagnose Texts dated to be from 156–186 BC document early beliefs in channels of life force energy called meridians that would later be an element in early acupuncture beliefs. 267 Ramey and quell said the “practice and theoretical underpinnings” of modern acupuncture were introduced in the Yellow Emperor's Classic Huangdi Beijing around 100 BC. 28 267 It introduced the concept of using acupuncture to manipulate the flow of life energy qi in a network of meridian channels in the body. 267 272 The network concept was made up of acu-tracts, such as a line down the arms, where it said acupoints were located. It includes a licensing exam and registration, as well as degree courses approved by the board. 300 Canada has acupuncture licensing programs in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta and Quebec; standards set by the Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture Association of Canada are used in provinces without government regulation. 287 Regulation in the US began in the 1970s 301 in California, which was eventually followed by every state but Wyoming and Idaho. 299 302 Licensing requirements vary greatly from state to state. Some of the sites acupuncturists use needles at today still have the same names as this given to them by the Yellow empower's Classic. 29 :93 Numerous additional documents were published over the centuries introducing new acupoints. 29 :101 By the 4th century AD, most of the acupuncture sites in use today had been named and identified. 29 :101 In the first half of the 1st century AD, acupuncturists began promoting the belief that acupuncture's effectiveness was influenced by the time of day or night, the lunar cycle, and the season. 29 :140-141 The Science of the Yin-Yang Cycles yen chi Hsüeh was a set of beliefs skin is sterilized and needles are inserted, frequently with a plastic guide tube. Japanese reprint by Suharaya Heisuke acupuncture to cause bleeding, while others mixed the ideas of blood-letting and spiritual Ph'i energy. If the de-qi sensation does not immediately occur upon needle insertion, various manual manipulation techniques can be applied to promote it such as “plucking”, “shaking” or “trembling”. 52 Once de-qi is achieved, further on a rhythm and acupuncture had to be applied at the right point in the rhythm to be effective. 29 :140-141 In some cases a lack of balance between Yin and Yang were believed to be the cause of disease. 29 :140-141 In the 1st century AD, many of the first books about acupuncture were published and recognized acupuncturist experts began to emerge.

“Demystifying.92.93 This usage has been criticized owing to there being little scientific evidence for explicit effects, or the mechanisms for its supposed effectiveness, for any condition that is discernible fDom placebo. 77 Acupuncture has been called 'theatrical placebo', 57 and David Gorski argues that when acupuncture proponents advocate 'harnessing of placebo effects' or work on developing 'meaningful placebos', they essentially concede it is little more than that. 77 The use of acupuncture in Germany increased by 20% in 2007, after the German acupuncture trials supported its efficacy for certain uses. 294 In 2011, there were more than one million users, 294 and insurance companies have estimated that two-thirds of German users are women. 294 As a result of the trials, German public health insurers began to cover acupuncture for chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee, but not tension headache or migraine. 295 This decision was based in part on socio-political reasons. 295 Some insurers in Germany chose to stop reimbursement of acupuncture because of the trials. 296 For other conditions, insurers in Germany were not convinced that acupuncture had adequate benefits over usual care or sham treatments. 297 Highlighting the results of the placebo group, researchers refused to accept a placebo therapy as efficient. 298 Main article: Regulation of acupuncture There are various governments and trade association regulatory bodies for acupuncture in the United Kingdom, the United States, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Japan, Canada, and in European countries and elsewhere. Japanese reprint by Suharaya Heisuke cupping in China. ISSN   the body, and eventually to balancing Yin and Yang energies as well. 28 According to Dr. Evidence.rom.he body suggests Otzi suffered from these conditions. 30 This has been cited as evidence that practices similar to acupuncture may have been practice elsewhere in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age ; 268 however, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine calls this theory “speculative”. 31 It is considered unlikely that acupuncture was practice before 2000 BC. 267 The Ötzi the Iceman's tattoo marks suggest to some experts that an acupuncture-like treatment was previously used in Europe 5 millennia ago. 9 Acupuncture may have been practice during the Neolithic era, near the end of the stone age, using sharpened stones called Brian Shi . 29 :70 Many Chinese texts from later eras refer to sharp stones called “Olen”, which means “stone probe”, that may have been used for acupuncture purposes. 29 :70 The ancient Chinese medical text, Huangdi Beijing, indicates that sharp stones were believed at-the-time to cure illnesses at or near the body's surface, perhaps because of the short depth a stone could penetrate. while moxibustion was used for chronic diseases . Infection is caused by a lack of sterilization, but at that time it was believed to be caused by use of the wrong needle, or skin is sterilized and needles are inserted, frequently with a plastic guide tube. ACM practitioners disagree among themselves about how to diagnose transdermal electrical nerve stimulation TENS masquerading as acupuncture”. 57 Fire needle acupuncture also known as fire needling is a technique which involves quickly inserting a flame-heated needle into areas on the body. 58 Sonopuncture is a stimulation of the body similar to acupuncture using sound instead of needles. 59 This may be done using purpose-built transducers to direct a narrow ultrasound beam to a depth of 6–8 centimetres at acupuncture meridian points on the body. 60 Alternatively, tuning forks or other sound emitting devices are used. 61 Acupuncture point injection is the injection of various substances such as drugs, vitamins or herbal extracts into acupoints. 62 Auriculotherapy, commonly known as ear acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, or auriculoacupuncture, is considered to date back to ancient China.

acupuncture